A New Textual Research of the Title of Qing, 1616~1636
Lu Zhenghuan, Huang Yinong
Abstract: As to the title of Qing from Nurhachi became Khan in 1616 to Huangtaiji proclaimed himself as emperor in 1636 is “aisin”, “amaga aisin”, or both of two was used, there is still a lack of consensus among the academia. Thanks to the publication and digitization of the great mass of materials on this period in recent years, and through blanket search of relevant materials and artifacts in Chinese and Manchu, we can be sure that there is no sound evidence that “amaga aisin” was once title of the regime. And from hundreds of official usages, we can know that “aisin” should be the title throughout this period, and Tianming was not the title either.